Birds do not appear to develop an immune response following Clinical Disease and Pathology infection order meloxicam 15 mg without a prescription arthritis pain exercises, and relapses are common cheap meloxicam 15mg line arthritis is back. Spe- Clinical Disease and Pathology cies-specific strains that infect geese morphologically Haemophilus infections generally cause a rhinitis resemble P cheap 15mg meloxicam amex arthritis ginger. This organism has been ref- that results in a serous-to-mucoid or even fibrinous erenced as a cause of chronic disease in the gosling,26 exudate. Mortality rates in this age group can Blue Crane Pneumonia (together with staphylococci) reach 75% of exposed young. Acute disease develops and necrosis of liver tissue in older birds and is characterized by sinusitis, con- Pigeon Rhinitis junctivitis, coughing and diarrhea, followed in two African Grey Parrot Pneumonia, air sacculitis days by tremors, ataxia and convulsions. Survivors Plum-headed Parakeet Sinusitis, swelling of the liver together are stunted and fail to grow. Cytophaga-induced spondylitis with compression Muscovy Duck Rhinitis, sinusitis of the spinal cord was reported in turkeys. There was exudate forma- the beak cavity tion within the ventricles as well as proliferation of Siamese Fireback Necrosis of the lung tissue. Isolation and identification of the causa- tive agent is necessary in all other cases. Tularemia New Duck Disease (Duck Septicemia) Tularemia is caused by Francisella tularensis, a mo- The etiologic agent of duck septicemia has been sus- tile, short rod, 0. Isolates are pected to be Pfeifferella, Pasteurella or Moraxella reported occasionally, mainly from birds that inhabit anatipestifer. The causative organism has recently the northern and subarctic regions of the northern been placed in the genus Cytophaga, which is a hemisphere, such as the Common Pheasant, Wax- semiaerobic, nonmotile rod. Rodents are considered to be the primary Europe; serovars 1, 2 and 5 are most common in the reservoir. United States; serovar 3 is frequently isolated in The pathology resembles that of Pasteurella or Australia. Francisella previously has been and geese, free-ranging waterfowl, turkeys, pheas- classified with these two genera. Experimental disease does not occur following oral Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (An. It grows on commonly used media, even on transmission resulting in high morbidity and mortal- some selective media for Enterobacteriaceae. Un- harbor the organism in the respiratory or intestinal doubtedly, there are strain differences in virulence, tracts. Therefore, it studied sufficiently to determine their importance in is assumed that the organism has a low pathogenic- birds. Staphylococcus protein A, which is found in the ity, and infections indicate a compromised host. The correlation be- tween protein A production and the virulence of avian Staphylococcus strains is poorly documented. When present in diseased tissue, they are gen- erally considered to be secondary invaders. Staphylococcus infections can induce sporadic or en- zootic disease in many avian species. The organism is found in abundant quantities aureus, can function as primary pathogens or may in air and dust. Isolation of the organism can fre- complicate other infections as secondary invaders. Be- cause some of these biovars are recovered only in a limited number of closely related bird species, they may represent bacterial organisms that have adapted to specific hosts. However, staphylococci are Staphylococci have several pathogenicity markers part of the autochthonous flora and are probably not the primary including production of the clumping factor, hemolys- cause of this problem. The presence of the clumping factor seems to toxin), the foot and leg lesions resolved. The client eventually correlate closely with pathogenicity in avian pa- stopped smoking and the bird had no further episodes of Amazon tients. Given proper conditions, Exogenous infections usually result in localized skin the organism can propagate in an external environ- disease, although subsequent septicemia can occur in ment. Birds, unlike mammals, are generally develop resistance to disinfectants following continu- resistant to wound infection. To become established, ous exposure, and frequent changing of disinfectants exogenous bacteria typically require epithelium is required to prevent the development of resistant damaged by other infectious agents (particularly strains. Evaluating the type of lesions caused by experi- mental subcutaneous infection of S. This type of response is considered to be one of the major factors in treating staphylococcus-re- Pathogenesis lated bumblefoot. The importance of Staphylococcus infections in birds is clinically underestimated. Individual strains may Clinical Disease and Pathology cause clinical problems in one bird while being con- Staphylococcus can induce a wide range of clinical sidered normal autochthonous flora in another. Lipo- and pathologic lesions, including high embryonic teichoic acid, a major component of the staphylococ- mortality, yolk sac or umbilical inflammation, septi- cal wall, is instrumental in the specific capacity of cemia, arthritis-synovitis, osteomyelitis, vesicular this organism to bind to host cell receptors, particu- dermatitis, gangrenous dermatitis and bumblefoot. Such binding is a precondition for colonization and subsequent infec- Endogenous infections usually cause internal le- tion. However, avirulent strains can also bind to the sions, while exogenous infections frequently result in same receptors and may compete for receptor sites, dermatitis and bumblefoot. This the umbilical region are typically either dry and process is called “bacterial interference. Clini- strains of Staphylococcus have been used as prophy- cal problems are most common in newly hatched lactic tools, especially in poults. Some of these chicks (up to ten days of age), in which the yolk sac apathogenic strains also produce bacteriocin, which in the body cavity is not absorbed normally, with can inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria. Although endogenous infections can be primary, they Staphylococcus septicemia may be characterized by are frequently secondary to respiratory tract coloni- nonspecific clinical signs including lethargy, ano- zation and progress to septicemia. If an infected bird rexia, a kyphotic posture, ruffled plumage and sud- survives the acute septicemic stage of the disease, it den death. Focal lesions distal digits or adnexa of the head and neck is sug- occur as a result of thrombi formation in the arteri- gestive of a thrombi-inducing infection, which can be oles and capillaries, which leads to ischemic necrosis. During the Clinically, these necrotic areas are frequently local- initial phases of the ischemic process, the involved ized at the tips of the extremities and in the skin. In digits may be swollen, congested and painful, and addition, infarction can also cause necrotic lesions in many affected birds exhibit lameness. The acute on- internal organs, particularly the liver and kidneys, set of tremors, opisthotonos and torticollis can often which are more difficult to discern clinically. Postsepticemic septicemia include petechiae and ecchymoses of in- development of arthritis, tenovaginitis, osteitis and ternal organs.
These species are used in medicines especially in the treatment of intestinal complaints; problems of stomach cheap 15 mg meloxicam with visa natural arthritis relief diet, pain in chest and rheumatism effective meloxicam 7.5 mg arthritis pain relief as seen on tv. A decoction of wholeplant is used in the treatment of abdominal pain; abscesses arthritis; indigestion etc 7.5mg meloxicam with amex arthritis in dogs causes. The different characters found in the two species could supplement the morphological identities of the two species and can be used in standardization of powdered traditional medicine. Preliminary phytochemical tests haves been carried out by using leaves and stem of P. In this study, the main constituents observed were alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, phenolic compounds and amino acids. Physicochemical properties of leaves were examined and the result showed the difference of solubility properties and that the highest yield was obtained from ethanolic extract of leaves of P. Each drug was tested on 15 patients separately for a period of 21 days during which the benefits and the side effects were monitored clinically and by laboratory methods. The consumption of aminophylline tablets were significantly reduced in patients treated with Khway-thay-pan-ywet (69. A study has been undertaken on the 4 species of the genus Annona which grown in Yangon District, Pyay District and Kalaw Townships (Southern Shan State). The comparative morphological studies on both the vegetative and reproductive parts and the anatomical studies on the leaves, stems and fruits have been made. The morphological and anatomical characters of the four species studied, namely Annona cherimolia Mill. It is annual of perennial herbs, growing wild in various part of Myanmar, particularly in hilly regions of Shan, Kachin, Chin, Kayah States, Mandalay and Sagaing Divisions. They were very similar to the botanical name of both Indian and European medicinal plant of Swertia chirayita Roxb. Due to the differents in vernacular name and similarity in the common features and the medicinal value. The morphology of these 10 plants specimens from various parts was carefully studied. Comparative study on effect of Myanmar traditional medicine paste and wax-bath physiotherapy in treatment of osteoarthritis knee in female patients. Female osteoarthritis cases are common clinical problem in Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, treated by several conservative methods with varying degree of effectiveness. Topical therapy has the obvious advantages of being simple to apply, non-invasive and self-administer by the patient. Among topical medicine, Myanmar traditional medicine paste (Ahtoo-lane-hsay) is a commonly used traditional medicine for arthritis in Myanmar Traditional Medicine Hospital since 1976. Although it is said to be effective in osteoarthritis, there has been no scientific study as yet. To determine the effectiveness of Myanmar Traditional Medicine Paste in treatment of osteoarthritis knee; in female patients. A prospective hospital based randomized controlled clinical study was carried out in (110) female osteoarthritis patients who attended the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, No. Pain, range of movement, muscle power, stiffness and knee functional capacity and quality of life were assessed by appropriate scoring methods in both groups initially and then periodically reassessed up to 3 months. Cinoared to the baseline, both groups showed significant improvement in all measurements, more obvious in first 4 weeks. Myanmar Traditional Medicine paste (Ahtoo-lane-hsay) has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in osteoarthritis knee cases. It can be recommended as an effective, safe, and easy to administer inexpensive alternative therapy for osteoarthritis knee effects of long term analgesic therapy. Comparative study on quantitative determination of eugenol in the essential oil of Piper betle Linn. The physical properties such as moisture, total nitrogen content, total alcohol soluble matter, total water soluble matter and microchemical tests on alcohol and water soluble matters were determined. The yield percent were determined depending on the method and quality of betel leaf. The physicochemical characteristics were determined by standard methods of analysis for vegetable oil and fats. The elemental contents of betel leaf were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The betel leaf decoction was prepared according to the procedures usually used by traditional practitioners. The type of sugars, the amount of free reducing sugars and the amount of minerals of the betel leaf decoction were determined. The comparison between the betel leaf decoction and the oral rehydration salt solution was also determined. The present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-plaque properties of Ixora coccinea Linn. The present study was performed on sixty young subjects with chronic gingivitis at the Institute of Nursing, Yangon. All subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups with equal sex distribution. Clinical examination and recording of the scores was obtained weekly up to one month. Mean scores of gingival inflammation, bleeding on probing and plaque accumulation were significantly reduced in both groups. Cultural beliefs and traditional medicine utilization in Myanmar: A model assessment. Thaw Zin; Sein Win; Khin Chit; Tin Mg Lay; Kyi Kyi; Moe Moe Aye; Myint Thuzar Thant; Mya Mya Moe. Four cultural models are recognized, cultural deficit, cultural conflict, mainstream conformity and cultural distrust models, to exist in a population having different behaviour towards available health care services. To understand the influence of cultural characteristics on traditional medicine utilization, 2 areas; Yangon Division having the least culture beliefs’ influence, and Southern Shan state having diverse ethnic minorities, different culture beliefs and healing practices were compared. However, the majourity of minor ailments encountered were successfully taken care of with available health care facilities, whether it is allopathic or traditional. The main influencing model was the mainstream conformity model where deep-rooted beliefs in indigenous practices existed, followed by cultural deficit model where lack of knowledge on a health care system and medicine (21. Proper health education, exchange of knowledge between different cultures and involvement of ethnic minorities as health providers within the existing health system may help resolve these differences. The chloroform and alcohol extracts of Desmodium triquetrum and Acorus calamus and the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Alpinia galanga contain flavonoids. These are possibly the active principles responsible for their anti-bacterial activity. Khin Tar Yar Myint; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Win Myint; May Aye Than; Aye Than; Win Win Maw; Thandar Myint. Medicinal plants and herbal drugs are being more utilized for health purposes throughout the world, nowadays. In Myanmar also, many of the traditional remedies are accepted and used by a large segment of the population.
Bibliography with no place of publication or publisher found Publisher for Bibliographies (required) General Rules for Publisher • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication buy meloxicam 7.5mg arthritis knee exercises pdf, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion order meloxicam 7.5mg visa rheumatoid arthritis scholarship. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references meloxicam 15 mg cheap arthritis knee gives out, abbreviate the same word in all references. Lisbon: Imprensa Medica; • Romanize names given in Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean Sofa (Bulgaria): Sofa Medizina i Fizkultura; • Romanize names or translate names presented in character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Tokyo: Medikaru Rebyusha; Beijing (China): [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute]; Taiyuan (China): Shanxi ke xue ji she chu ban she; [Note that the concept of capitalization does not exist in Chinese. Terefore in transliterating Chinese publisher names only the frst word and proper nouns are capitalized. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Aarhus (Denmark): Aarhus-Universitetsforlag [Aarhus University Press]; • If the name of a division of other part of an organization is included in the publisher information, give the names in hierarchical order from highest to lowest Valencia (Spain): Universidade de Valencia, Instituto de Historia de la Ciencia y Documentacion Lopez Pinero; • As an option, you may translate all publisher names not in English. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation has been given in the publication. Designate the agency that issued the publication as the publisher and include distributor information as a note, preceded by the phrase "Available from:". Use the frst organization appearing on the title page or the verso (back) of the title page as the publisher. For those publications with joint or co-publishers, use the name given frst as the publisher and include the name of the second as a note if desired. Adult survivors of incest/childhood sexual abuse: a selected, annotated list of books. Bibliography with national or governmental agency as publisher, with country qualifer added 19. Bibliography with no place of publication or publisher found Date of Publication for Bibliographies (required) General Rules for Date of Publication • Always give the year of publication • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. A copyright date is identifed by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Tis convention alerts a user that the information in the publication is older than the date of publication implies. If no date of publication can be found, but the publication contains a date of copyright, use the date of copyright preceded by the letter "c"; for example c2005. Bibliography with no date of publication or copyright found Pagination for Bibliographies (optional) General Rules for Pagination • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the bibliography appears • Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text • Follow the page total with a space and the letter p • For bibliographies published in more than one physical volume, cite the total number of volumes instead of the number of pages, such as 4 vol. If all of the pages (not just the introductory pages) of a bibliography have roman numerals instead of the usual arabic numbers: • Convert the roman numeral on the last page of the text to an arabic number Box 48 continues on next page... Bibliography of 1690 citations on autohemotherapy, autogenous vaccines, and the works of E. No page numbers on the pages of the bibliography Physical Description for Bibliographies (optional) General Rules for Physical Description • Give information on the physical characteristics if a bibliography is published in a microform (microflm, microfche, etc. Tis information will help the reader select the appropriate equipment with which to view the microform. Specific Rules for Physical Description • Language for describing physical characteristics 534 Citing Medicine Box 50. If a bibliography is published on microfche, microflm, or microcards: • Begin with information on the number and type of physical pieces, followed by a colon and a space 5 microfche: 3 reels: [of microflm] 1 microcard: • Enter information on the physical characteristics, such as color and size. Bibliography in a microform Series for Bibliographies (optional) General Rules for Series • Begin with the name of the series • Capitalize only the frst word and proper nouns Bibliographies 535 • Follow the name with any numbers provided. As an option, the name of the overall series editor may be included with the series information. Beauge G, Bendiab A, Labib A, Longuenesse E, Roussillon A, Quiles J, Weyland P, compilers. Beauge G, Bendiab A, Labib A, Longuenesse E, Roussillon A, Quiles J, Weyland P, compilers. Bibliography with titles with parallel text in two languages Notes for Bibliographies (optional) General Rules for Notes • Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given afer the citation itself • Complete sentences are not required • Be brief Specific Rules for Notes • Information on number of citations, time period covered, etc. Add the phrase "Accompanied by:" followed by a space and the number and type of medium. Assessing children for the presence of a disability; resources you can use [bibliography]. Genitale Verstummelung von Frauen: eine Bibliographie [Female genital mutilation: a bibliography]. Bibliography with other supplemental notes Examples of Citations to Entire Bibliographies 1. Standard citation without the word bibliography in the title (content type added) Grayson L, compiler. Bibliography with optional full first names for compilers Khan, Namir; Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H. Bibliography with no compilers or editors Teaching hospital costs: an annotated bibliography of the costs of medical education, patient care, and research at teaching hospitals. Tabak i tabakokurenie: osnovnoi bibliografcheskii ukazatel otechestvennoi i zarubezhnoi literatury. Chusu shinkeikei senten ijo bunkenshu: kore made no shinpo to kongo no kadai [Bibliographies of congenital central nervous system diseases]. Bibliographies 541 Poblacion y empleo en Bolivia (bibliografa anotada) [Population and employment in Bolivia (an annotated bibliography)]. Tabak i tabakokurenie: osnovnoi bibliografcheskii ukazatel otechestvennoi i zarubezhnoi literatury [Tobacco and tobacco smoking: bibliographic index of the Russian and foreign literature]. Infant mortality and health in Latin America: an annotated bibliography of the 1979-82 literature. Beauge G, Bendiab A, Labib A, Longuenesse E, Roussillon A, Quiles J, Weyland P, compilers. Bibliography with titles with parallel text in two languages Lavallee C, Robinson E, editors. Bibliography of African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics in engineering, science and the health professions. Psychological factors in emergency medical services for children: abstracts of the psychological, behavioral, and medical literature, 1991-1998 [bibliography]. Trier (Germany): Universitat Trier, Zentrum fur Psychologische Information und Dokumentation; 2004. Bibliography of 1690 citations on autohemotherapy, autogenous vaccines, and the works of E. Infectious diseases in twentieth-century Africa: a bibliography of their distribution and consequences.
Prepared under the auspices of the University of South Florida School of Physical Education buy meloxicam 15mg cheap arthritis in dogs aspirin dose. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications order 7.5 mg meloxicam mastercard rheumatoid arthritis diet livestrong. Follow the same rules as used for author names order cheapest meloxicam arthritis in dogs aspirin dose, but end the list of names with a comma and the specifc role, that is, editor(s) or translator(s). Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; separate successive names by a semicolon and a space. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Marubini E (Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy), Rebora P, Reina G. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy Espana becomes Spain Examples for Author Affiliation 9. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Electronic encyclopedia on maxillo- facial, dental & skeletal development = Encyclopedie electronique du Box 16 continues on next page... Place the type of medium in square brackets afer the title and end title information with a period. Genusys: database of herbal remedies, aromatherapy, essential oils, vitamins, amino acids, and more! Database of β-amino acids may become Database of beta-amino acids Box 18 continues on next page... Under rare circumstances a database does not appear to have any title; the database simply begins with the records in it. In this circumstance: • Construct a title based on the content of the records • Place the constructed title in square brackets Examples for Title 10. Place the content type and type of medium in square brackets afer the title and end title information with a period. Place the type of medium in square brackets afer the title and end title information with a period. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Examples: ĉ or ç becomes c ⚬ Do not convert numbers or words for numbers to arabic ordinals as is the practice for English language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Examples: ŏ becomes o ū becomes u ⚬ Do not convert numbers or words for numbers to arabic ordinals as is the practice for English language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Tokyo: Medikaru Rebyusha; Beijing (China): [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute]; Taiyuan (China): Shanxi ke xue ji she chu ban she; [Note that the concept of capitalization does not exist in Chinese. Terefore in transliterating Chinese publisher names only the frst word and proper nouns are capitalized. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Aarhus (Denmark): Aarhus-Universitetsforlag [Aarhus University Press]; • As an option, you may translate all publisher names not in English. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Designate the agency that issued the database as the publisher and include distributor information as a note. Add the name of the distributor, the city and state, and the accession or order number. For those publications with joint or co-publishers, use the name given frst as the publisher and include the name(s) of the other(s) as a note if desired. A copyright date is identifed by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Tis convention alerts a user that the information in the publication is older than the date of publication implies. If no date of publication can be found, but the database contains a date of copyright, use the date of copyright preceded by the letter "c"; for example c2005. As an option, the name of the overall series editor may be included with the series information. If a database is a part of more than one series, include information on all series if desired. System requirements describe the particular sofware and hardware needed to view the database. Some examples of notes are: • Information on database content Veterinary librarian [disk]. Seattle: University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources; c1996. Prepared under the auspices of the University of South Florida School of Physical Education. Seattle: University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources; c1996. Database of information on almost 600 organic solvents used in industry, academic research, and general commerce. Seattle: University of Washington, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources; c1996. Genusys: database of herbal remedies, aromatherapy, essential oils, vitamins, amino acids, and more! In medicine, computer programs are ofen used to instruct on techniques and to assist in performing a variety of tasks, such as organizing patient data. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications.