B. Jorn. University of Kansas.
The said conditions shall make allowance for the habits and customs of the prisoners and shall in no case be prejudicial to their health purchase maxolon 10mg online. The foregoing provisions shall apply in particular to the dormitories of prisoners of war as regards both total surface and minimum cubic space purchase generic maxolon canada, and the general installations discount maxolon 10 mg without prescription, bedding and blankets. The premises provided for the use of prisoners of war individually or collectively, shall be entirely protected from dampness and adequately heated and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out. In any camps in which women prisoners of war, as well as men, are accommodated,separate dormitories shall be provided for them. The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who work with such additional rations as are necessary for the labour on which they are employed. Prisoners of war shall, as far as possible, be associated with the preparation of their meals; they may be employed for that purpose in the kitchens. Furthermore, they shall be given the means of preparing, themselves, the additional food in their possession. Uniforms of enemy armed forces captured by the Detaining Power should, if suitable for the climate, be made available to clothe prisoners of war. In addition, prisoners of war who work shall receive appropriate clothing, wherever the nature of the work demands. The profits made by camp canteens shall be used for the benefit of the prisoners; a special fund shall be created for this purpose. The prisoners’ representative shall have the right to collaborate in the management of the canteen and of this fund. When a camp is closed down, the credit balance of the special fund shall be handed to an international welfare organization, to be employed for the benefit of prisoners of war of the same nationality as those who have contributed to the fund. In case of a general repatriation, such profits shall be kept by the Detaining Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Powers concerned. Prisoners of war shall have for their use, day and night, conveniences which conform to the rules of hygiene and are maintained in a constant state of cleanliness. In any camps in which women prisoners of war are accommodated, separate conveniences shall be provided for them. Also, apart from the baths and showers with which the camps shall be furnished, prisoners of war shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their personal toilet and for washing their personal laundry; the necessary installations, facilities and time shall be granted them for that purpose. Isolation wards shall, if necessary, be set aside for cases of contagious or mental disease. Prisoners of war suffering from serious disease, or whose condition necessitates special treatment, a surgical operation or hospital care, must be admitted to any military or civilian medical unit where such treatment can be given, even if their repatriation is contemplated in the near future. Special facilities shall be afforded for the care to be given to the disabled,in particular to the blind,and for their rehabilitation, pending repatriation. Prisoners of war shall have the attention, preferably, of medical personnel of the Power on which they depend and, if possible, of their nationality. Prisoners of war may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the medical authorities for examination. The detaining authorities shall, upon request, issue to every prisoner who has undergone treatment, an official certificate indicating the nature of his illness or injury, and the duration and kind of treatment received. A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central Prisoners of War Agency The costs of treatment, including those of any apparatus necessary for the maintenance of prisoners of war in good health, particularly dentures and other artificial appliances, and spectacles, shall be borne by the Detaining Power. They shall include the checking and the recording of the weight of each prisoner of war. Their purpose shall be, in particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of prisoners and to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria and venereal disease. In that case they shall continue to be prisoners of war, but shall receive the same treatment as corresponding medical personnel retained by the Detaining Power. They personnel shall, however, receive as a minimum the benefits and protection of the present Convention, and shall also be granted all facilities necessary to provide for the medical care of, and religious ministration to prisoners of war. They shall continue to exercise their medical and spiritual functions for the benefit of prisoners of war, preferably those belonging to the armed forces upon which they depend, within the scope of the military laws and regulations of the Detaining Power and under the control of its competent services, in accordance with their professional etiquette. They shall also benefit by the following facilities in the exercise of their medical or spiritual functions: a) They shall be authorized to visit periodically prisoners of war situated in working detachments or in hospitals outside the camp. For this purpose, the Detaining Power shall place at their disposal the necessary means of transport. For this purpose, Parties to the conflict shall agree at the outbreak of hostilities on the subject of the corresponding ranks of the medical personnel, including that of societies mentioned in Article 26 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949. This senior medical officer, as well as chaplains, shall have the right to deal with the competent authorities of the camp on all questions relating to their duties. Such authorities shall afford them all necessary facilities for correspondence relating to these questions. During hostilities, the Parties to the conflict shall agree concerning the possible relief of retained personnel and shall settle the procedure to be followed. They shall be allocated among the various camps and labour detachments containing prisoners of war belonging to the same forces, speaking the same language or practising the same religion. They shall enjoy the necessary facilities, including the means of transport provided for in Article 33, for visiting the prisoners of war outside their camp. They shall be free to correspond, subject to censorship, on matters concerning their religious duties with the ecclesiastical authorities in the country of detention and with international religious organizations. Letters and cards which they may send for this purpose shall be in addition to the quota provided for in Article 71. For this purpose, they shall receive the same treatment as the chaplains retained by the Detaining Power. This appointment, subject to the approval of the Detaining Power, shall take place with the agreement of the community of prisoners concerned and, wherever necessary, with the approval of the local religious authorities of the same faith. The person thus appointed shall comply with all regulations established by the Detaining Power in the interests of discipline and military security. Prisoners shall have opportunities for taking physical exercise, including sports and games and for being out of doors. Such officer shall have in his possession a copy of the present Convention; he shall ensure that its provisions are known to the camp staff and the guard and shall be responsible, under the direction of his government, for its application. Prisoners of war, with the exception of officers, must salute and show to all officers of the Detaining Power the external marks of respect provided for by the regulations applying in their own forces. Officer prisoners of war are bound to salute only officers of a higher rank of the Detaining Power; they must, however, salute the camp commander regardless of his rank. Copies shall be supplied, on request, to the concerning prisoners who cannot have access to the copy which has been prisoners posted. Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind relating to the conduct of prisoners of war shall be issued to them in a language which they understand. Such regulations, orders and publications shall be posted in the manner described above and copies shall be handed to the prisoners’ representative. Every order and command addressed to prisoners of war individually must likewise be given in a language which they understand.
Quantitative review of operative and nonoperative management of achilles tendon ruptures buy generic maxolon online. Bi-pedicled V-Y gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap for repairing Achilles tendon and overlying skin defect: The anatomic basis and clinical application buy 10mg maxolon free shipping. These guidelines are a working document that refects the state of the feld at the time of publication cheap maxolon master card. Any decision by practitioners to apply these guidelines must be made in light of local resources and individual patient circumstances. Address correspondence to American Association of Clinical with endocrine and metabolic disorders. Many of the endocrinology training programs in the United States lack a dedicated nutrition 2. As a result, nutritional counseling and man- healthy eating for the prevention and treatment of meta- agement for our patients is often delegated to other health bolic and endocrine diseases in adults. Recommendations recently approved counseling for obesity, most overweight are assigned Grade levels based on the supporting clini- patients or patients with obesity, dyslipidemia, polycystic cal evidence and subjective factors. In addition, all primary writers are from this important component of health care. Recommendation grades are based • the relative scarcity and increased expense of on four intuitive levels: (grades A [strong], B [intermedi- healthy foods, ate], and C [weak]) or expert opinion when there is a lack • the easy accessibility, low cost, and palatability of of conclusive clinical evidence (grade D). There are also four intuitive levels quate and/or ineffective food policies, of evidence: 1 = strong, 2 = intermediate, 3 = weak, and • the perishability of foods, increased need for 4 = no evidence. Comments may be appended to recom- preservatives, and decreased awareness of food mendations regarding relevant subjective factors that may safety, have infuenced the grading process. The consensus level • the variability of nutrient-gene interactions of experts for each recommendation may also be explicitly (nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics), and provided in appropriate instances. Thus, the process lead- • transcultural factors, including religious, social, ing to a fnal recommendation and grade is not dogmatic ethnic, and economic factors, as well as individ- but rather incorporates a complex expert integration of ual food preferences, culinary styles, and belief objective and subjective factors meant to refect optimal systems. Essential macronutrients and micronutrients, (15 to 35% of calories depending on total intake) fber, and water should be provided by well-cho- can replace a portion of saturated fat and/or refned sen foods and beverages that can be enjoyed and carbohydrates in the meal plan to help improve constitute a healthy eating pattern. The weight-loss goal for overweight or obese patients with vitamin B12 defciency can gener- patients is 5 to 10% of current body weight over ally be treated with oral vitamin B12 (1,000 μg per the ensuing 6 to 12 months. When subjective factors have a strong impact, then recommendation grades may be adjusted up (“positive” impact) or down (“negative” impact). Sustained behavior modifcation must be the use of dietary supplements to meet nutrient achieved for long-term success with weight man- requirements should be implemented (Grade D, agement. When frst treating a patient with over- nutritional supplementation and medical moni- weight or obesity, emphasis should be placed on toring for complications, including electrolyte 8 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Healthy Eating, Endocr Pract. What Nutritional Recommendations are weight is recommended to prevent and treat hyper- Appropriate for Cardiovascular Health? All patients should be coun- Adiposopathy seled to adhere to the Dietary Approaches to Stop • R13. Sodium intake should be further reduced patients should also be advised to increase caloric (<1,500 mg/day; or 3,800 mg/day of table salt) expenditure to at least 150 minutes of moderate- for people age 51 years and above, all people who intensity activity every week (e. What Nutritional Recommendations are and a low-normal protein dietary reference intake Appropriate for Bone Health? A calcium intake greater Clinical Practice Guidelines for Healthy Eating, Endocr Pract. Women does not provide adequate calcium intake (Grade who are pregnant should consume 1. All individuals at risk for vitamin D defciency pregnant women should ingest a minimum of 250 (e. What Nutritional Recommendations are ing high-fber foods with lower fat content (Grade Appropriate for Pregnancy and Lactation? During breastfeeding, basal insulin 12 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Healthy Eating, Endocr Pract. What Nutritional Recommendations are micronutrients, a daily mix of nutrient-dense Appropriate for the Elderly? Older adults should consume more of the nutri- meals for institutionalized patients, correcting oral ent-dense whole-grain foods, such as brown rice, and dental problems leading to diffculties with whole-wheat breads, and whole-grain and fortifed eating, chewing or swallowing, addressing social cereals to meet carbohydrate needs. Energy and nutrient-dense and Disease Prevention foods, or manipulation of energy and nutri- Healthy eating includes the adequate provision of ent density of the meal plan, should be recom- macro- and micronutrients to sustain normal physiol- mended for the frail elderly to promote weight ogy and to avoid nutritional defciencies. Food safety, including the prevention of that may have a negative impact on health. The intensive lifestyle ability to read and understand nutrition fact labels should intervention was intended to help subjects lose and main- be an important component of patient nutrition education. Strenuous cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and activity may also precipitate vascular events in people lifestyle groups, respectively. It takes individualized care to bles, and whole-grain foods contain vitamins and antioxi- achieve success. The intervention group received counseling to ment of clinical nutrient defciencies. Prospective epidemi- reduce weight via nutritional intervention (lower fat intake, ologic studies and randomized trials of nutrition and nutri- higher fber intake) and increased daily physical activity. Growing evidence suggests that intervention group and 23% in the control subjects. A large number of potentially anticar- sis of cohort studies also found that a higher intake of fruits cinogenic and antioxidant agents are found in fsh, fruits, and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of stroke. A number of studies have exam- One study found the lowest risk of stroke was associated ined the hypothesis that antioxidants may prevent cancer with a high consumption of cruciferous vegetables (e. However, caution must be used Table 5 Natural Compounds in Food Important in Maintaining Health Greater nutrition • Whole foods contain a variety of compounds important to health. As an example, an orange provides vitamin C, beta carotene, calcium, and other nutrients, whereas a vitamin C supplement does not. Essential fber • Fiber is important in digestion and may play a role in disease prevention. Flavonoid is a common name for a phytochemical that may function as an antioxidant. Antioxidants • A compound that can protect the body against free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can form anywhere in the body leading to cell damage and have been linked to both cardiovascular disease and cancer. The European The relationship between fber intake and colorectal Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study cancer risk is unclear. In contrast, no relationship was noted between a in meat and meat products was more signifcantly associ- high-fber meal plan and the recurrence rate of colorectal ated with lower mortality than was eating cereal and fsh. It is worth noting that healthy eat- for the conficting results seen in these large observa- ing requires a healthy food supply, and implicit in this is tional studies. Of note, a pooled analysis of 13 prospec- the role of government and public health organizations.
Families and caregivers other medications order maxolon 10mg with mastercard, people should always talk should report any changes to the doctor purchase cheapest maxolon. Sometimes buy maxolon 10mg otc, s Olanzapine (Zyprexa), which helps people antipsychotics and antidepressants are used along with severe or psychotic depression, which with a mood stabilizer. In general, people continue s Ziprasidone (Geodon) treatment with mood stabilizers for years. Lithium s Clozapine (Clorazil), which is often used is a very effective mood stabilizer. They were originally developed to Antidepressants are sometimes used to treat treat seizures, but they were found to help control symptoms of depression in bipolar disorder. One anticonvulsant commonly Fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), or used as a mood stabilizer is valproic acid, also sertraline (Zoloft) are a few that are used. For some 6 people with bipolar disorder should not take an people, it may work better than lithium. Doing so can cause the anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers are person to rapidly switch from depression to mania, carbamazepine (Tegretol), lamotrigine (Lamictal) which can be dangerous. Atypical antipsychotics Research on whether antidepressants help people Atypical antipsychotic medications are sometimes with bipolar depression is mixed. The people were taking mood stabilizers along with Mental Health Medications 7 the antidepressants. If you have any side effects, tell Valproic acid may cause damage to the liver or your doctor right away. He or she may change the pancreas, so people taking it should see their dose or prescribe a different medication. Different medications for treating bipolar disorder Valproic acid may affect young girls and women may cause different side effects. Sometimes, valproic acid may used for treating bipolar disorder have been increase testosterone (a male hormone) levels linked to unique and serious symptoms, which are in teenage girls and lead to a condition called described below. In some cases, s Slurred speech this rash can cause permanent disability or be life- s Fast, slow, irregular, or pounding heartbeat threatening. People If a person with bipolar disorder is being treated taking anticonvulsant medications for bipolar or with lithium, he or she should visit the doctor other illnesses should be closely monitored for new regularly to check the levels of lithium in the blood, or worsening symptoms of depression, suicidal and make sure the kidneys and the thyroid are thoughts or behavior, or any unusual changes in working normally. People taking these medications should not make any changes without talking to their health care professional. Treatment works best when talk with the doctor or pharmacist about any it is continuous, rather than on and off. Patients should be open with For information on side effects of antipsychotics, their doctors about treatment. Talking about how see the section on medications for treating treatment is working can help it be more effective. Doctors can use the chart to treat the illness most How should medications for bipolar effectively. Because medications for bipolar disorder can have Medications should be taken as directed by a serious side effects, it is important for anyone doctor. Sometimes a person’s treatment plan needs taking them to see the doctor regularly to check for to be changed. Benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety medications) Antidepressants The anti-anxiety medications called Antidepressants were developed to treat depression, benzodiazepines can start working more quickly but they also help people with anxiety disorders. The antidepressant s Alprazolam (Xanax), which is used for panic bupropion (Wellbutrin) is also sometimes used. When treating anxiety disorders, antidepressants generally are started at low doses and increased Buspirone (Buspar) is an anti-anxiety medication over time. Unlike benzodiazepines, however, it takes at least two weeks for buspirone Some tricyclic antidepressants work well for to begin working. Propranolol (Inderal) is a beta-blocker usually used to treat heart conditions and high How should medications for anxiety blood pressure. For People can build a tolerance to benzodiazepines if example, when a person with social phobia must they are taken over a long period of time and may face a stressful situation, such as giving a speech, need higher and higher doses to get the same effect. Taking the medicine for avoid these problems, doctors usually prescribe a short period of time can help the person keep the medication for short periods, a practice that is physical symptoms under control. If people suddenly stop taking See the section on antidepressants for a discussion benzodiazepines, they may get withdrawal on side effects. Therefore, The most common side effects for benzodiazepines they should be tapered off slowly. They effects include: are usually taken on a short-term basis for s Upset stomach anxiety. Talk s Blurred vision to the doctor before stopping any anti-anxiety s Headache s Confusion medication. Possible side effects from buspirone (BuSpar) include: s Dizziness s Headaches s Nausea s Nervousness s Lightheadedness s Excitement s Trouble sleeping. Common side effects from beta-blockers include: s Fatigue s Cold hands s Dizziness s Weakness. Talk with your child’s medication atomoxetine (Strattera) for use as a doctor if you see any of these side effects. The most common side Parents and doctors should decide together which effects include: medication is best for the child and whether the s Decreased appetite. Children seem to be less child needs medication only for school hours or for hungry during the middle of the day, but evenings and weekends too. The Stimulant medication also may improve physical doctor might also suggest that parents give coordination. However, different people respond the medication to their child earlier in the differently to medications, so children taking day, or stop the afternoon or evening dose. The s Agitation review also found a slightly higher risk (about 1 in s Panic attacks 1,000) for medication-related psychiatric problems, s Trouble sleeping such as hearing voices, having hallucinations, s Irritability becoming suspicious for no reason, or becoming s Aggressive or violent behavior manic. This happened to patients who had no s Acting without thinking history of psychiatric problems. This exam should look for existing While taking atomoxetine, your child should heart and psychiatric problems. Be sure that your child keeps all atomoxetine (Strattera) carries another warning. Studies show that children and teenagers with Mental Health Medications 13 Which groups have special needs when taking psychiatric medications? The of people, but some groups have special study found that low doses of the stimulant Pneeds, including: methylphenidate are safe and effective for s Children and adolescents preschoolers. However, children of this age are s Older adults more sensitive to the side effects of the medication, s Women who are pregnant or may become including slower growth rates. However, educational courses, and behavior management many medications have not been studied or techniques can help everyone involved cope with approved for use with children. Click here for more information on not sure how these medications affect a child’s child and adolescent mental health research. This means that the doctor prescribes Because older people often have more medical the medication to help the patient even though the problems than other groups, they tend to medicine is not approved for the speciﬁc mental take more medications than younger people, disorder or age.
As this some of the synthetic drugs are information is drawn from case reports rather than manufactured for export to other parts routine monitoring systems cheap maxolon 10 mg without a prescription, seizure estimates of the world purchase maxolon 10mg visa. Sizeable markets for cannabis buy cheap maxolon line, heroin and amphetamines have existed in many European countries since the 1970s and 1980s. Tese complex systems generate drug market, largely linked to globalisation and new large sums of money at all levels of the market. Some online vendors utilise the surface web, typically retailing non-controlled precursor chemicals, new psychoactive substances or medicines, which may be falsifed or counterfeit. Other vendors work on the deep Amphetamines web, through darknet markets, supported by technologies 5 % that hide buyer and seller identities. Tese markets share characteristics with legitimate online marketplaces such Heroin as eBay and Amazon, and customers can search for and 5 % compare products and vendors. Tese include anonymisation services, Other such as Tor and I2P, that hide a computer’s internet substances protocol address; cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin and 8 % litecoin, for making relatively untraceable payments; and encrypted communication between market participants. Cannabis plants 2 % Reputation systems also play a role in regulating vendors on the markets. A recent study, exploring sales on 16 major darknet markets between 2011 and 2015, estimated that drug sales were responsible for more than 90 % of the total economic revenue of global darknet marketplaces. Cannabis is the most commonly seized drug, accounting for over 70 % of seizures in Europe (Figure 1. Most sales on darknet markets are drug-related 20 Chapter 1 I Drug supply and the market In 2015, more than 60 % of all drug seizures in the Recent decline in quantity of herbal cannabis European Union were reported by just 3 countries, Spain, l seized France and the United Kingdom; considerable numbers of seizures were also reported by Belgium, Denmark, Herbal cannabis (marijuana) and cannabis resin (hashish) Germany, Greece, Italy and Sweden. It should also be are the two main cannabis products found on the noted that recent data on the number of seizures are not European drugs market, while cannabis oil is available for the Netherlands or for Poland and Finland. Cannabis products account for the Tese gaps in the data add uncertainty to the analysis. Herbal cannabis refects both its signifcant consumer market and its consumed in Europe is both cultivated domestically and position on drug trafcking routes between the European trafcked from external countries. Price and potency of cannabis products: national mean values — minimum, maximum and interquartile range. Quantity of cannabis resin seized (tonnes) Quantity of herbal cannabis seized (tonnes) Spain Turkey Other countries Other countries 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 those countries. In addition, evidence suggests that Libya Te number of seizures of herbal cannabis in Europe has has become a major hub for the trafcking of resin to exceeded that of cannabis resin since 2009, with relatively various destinations including Europe. An estimated In 2015, 732 000 seizures of cannabis products were 135 tonnes of herbal cannabis was seized in Europe in reported in the European Union including 404 000 of 2015, a decrease of 38 % compared with the 217 tonnes herbal cannabis, 288 000 of cannabis resin and 19 000 of seized in 2014. A similar decrease in the quantity of however, is more than 6 times that of herbal cannabis herbal cannabis seized in Turkey is also evident from 2013. Tis is partially a A number of factors may be behind this overall drop in consequence of cannabis resin being trafcked in volume Europe. Tese may include initiatives to tackle large-scale over large distances and across national borders, making it production in countries outside the European Union, such more vulnerable to interdiction. In the analysis of the as Albania; increased focus on domestic cultivation rather quantity of cannabis seized, a small number of countries than trafcking; changes in the way seizures are registered, are particularly important due to their location on major and changing law enforcement priorities in some cannabis trafcking routes. In the latest data, the quantity of cannabis resin point of entry for cannabis resin produced in Morocco, seized in the European Union has remained relatively reported more than 70 % of the total quantity seized in stable since 2009. Te most recent data suggest that may refect changes in law enforcement priorities, with resin and herb have similar prices, whereas on average, cannabis cultivation more intensively targeted. In 2015, 335 seizures of cannabis oil were reported, with Greece and Turkey seizing the largest quantities. Historically, diverted from legitimate pharmaceutical supplies, while imported heroin has been available in Europe in two forms, others such as the 27 kilograms of morphine powder the more common of which is brown heroin (its chemical seized in 2015, are illicitly manufactured. Far less common is white heroin (a salt form), which in the past Afghanistan remains the world’s largest illicit producer of came from South-East Asia, but now may also be opium, and most heroin found in Europe is thought to be produced in Afghanistan or neighbouring countries. Price and purity of ‘brown heroin’: national mean values — minimum, maximum and interquartile range. However, the discovery of two combined — while the number of seizures rose during the laboratories converting morphine to heroin in Spain and same period (Figure 1. Among those countries reporting one in the Czech Republic in recent years suggests that a consistently, indexed trends suggest that heroin purity small amount of heroin is manufactured in Europe. In addition to heroin, other opioid products are seized in Te two most important are the ‘Balkan route’ and the European countries, but these represent a small fraction of ‘southern route’. Te other opioids most commonly Balkan countries (Bulgaria, Romania or Greece) and on to seized are the medicinal opioids buprenorphine, tramadol central, southern and western Europe. Te southern route, where shipments from Iran and Pakistan enter Europe by air or sea, either directly or transiting through African countries, has gained importance in recent years. Other routes include the ‘northern route’ and a route through the southern Caucasus and across the Black Sea. Following a decade of relative stability, markets in a number of European countries experienced reduced heroin availability in 2010/11. Tis is evident in the number of heroin seizures reported, which declined in the European Union from 2009 to 2014, before stabilising in 2015. Between 2002 and 2013, the quantity of heroin seized within the European Union halved, from 10 to 5 tonnes. Tere are marked regional diferences regarding which stimulant is most commonly seized (Figure 1. Cocaine is the most frequently seized stimulant in many western and southern countries, closely refecting where the drug enters Europe. Amphetamines seizures are predominant in northern and central Europe, with methamphetamine the most commonly seized stimulant in the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia. Cocaine is transported to Europe by various means, including passenger fights, air freight, postal services, private aircraft, yachts and maritime containers. Price and purity of cocaine: national mean values — minimum, maximum and interquartile range. In total, around 87 000 seizures of cocaine were reported in the European Union in 2015. Together, Belgium, Spain, Other coca products were seized in Europe in 2015, France, Italy and Portugal account for 78 % of the including 76 kilograms of coca leaves and 377 kilograms estimated 69. Seizures of coca paste suggest the has remained relatively stable since 2007, although both existence of illicit laboratories producing cocaine the number of seizures and the quantity seized increased hydrochloride in Europe. While Spain date, most of the cocaine laboratories found in Europe (22 tonnes) continues to be the country seizing the most have been ‘secondary extraction facilities’, where cocaine cocaine, Belgium (17 tonnes) and France (11 tonnes) is recovered from materials in which it had been seized very large amounts in 2015, and notable increases incorporated (such as wines, clothes, plastics). However, this control Drug precursors are essential chemicals needed to measure appears to have prompted some innovative manufacture illicit drugs. Tis practice, resumed, with the Netherlands reporting 622 kilograms in however, increases the risk of detection, as more 2015 compared to zero in 2014. Over the last decade, seizures indicate 2015, with Polish authorities seizing 7 000 kilograms in a that the availability of methamphetamine has increased, single shipment linked to production in the Netherlands. Tere are indications that amphetamine mainly from the precursors ephedrine and production mainly takes place in Belgium, the Netherlands pseudoephedrine, which are extracted from medicinal and Poland, and to a lesser extent in the Baltic States, products smuggled chiefy from Poland. In 2015, of the 291 illegal fnal stage of production, the conversion of amphetamine methamphetamine laboratories reported in the European base oil to amphetamine sulphate, is carried out in Europe. Production in that country has shifted from small-scale operations, Some amphetamine is also manufactured for export, involving users making quantities for personal use or local principally to the Middle East, the Far East and Oceania.