N. Dan. Forest Institute of Professional Psychology.
A brief course on the limitations of the use of drugs in interrogation and on the kinds of pharmacologic effects to be expected from the different types of drugs would be helpful 200mg acivir pills with amex antiviral supplements. Such training could decrease the fear buy 200 mg acivir pills overnight delivery early infection symptoms of hiv, hypersuggestibility order cheap acivir pills online antiviral research center ucsd, and other deleterious reactions that evolve from the uncertain, the unpredictable, and the unknown. A comparative behavior and psychodynamic study of reserpine and equally potent doses of raudixin in schizophrenics. Zur Pharmakologie des Reserpin, eines neuen Alkaloids aus Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. Drugs that produce deviations in mood, including anxiety presumably without impairing capacities for orientation or at least secondarily to changes in mood. Sodium amytal as an aid in state hospital practice: Single interviews with 100 patients. Pharmacologic explorations of the personality: Narcoanalysis and "methedrine" shock. Clinical studies on alpha (2-piperidyl) benzhydrol hydrochloride, a new antidepressant drug. Experimental investigation into the validity of confessions obtained under sodium amytal narcosis. The relationship of gender and intelligence to choice of words: A normative study of verbal behavior. The speech patterns of schizophrenic patients: A method of assessing relative degree of personal disorganization and social alienation. Motivational determinants in the modification of behavior by morphine and pentobarbital. In Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, Methods of forceful indoctrination: Observations and interviews. A preliminary investigation into abreaction comparing methedrine and sodium amytal with other methods. Relationship between effects of a number of centrally acting drugs and personality. A controlled investigation into the value of chlorpromazine in the management of anxiety states. The effects of methedrine and of lysergic acid diethylamide on mental processes and on the blood adrenaline level. Mental effects of reduction of ordinary levels of physical stimuli on intact healthy persons. Psychological changes in normal and abnormal individuals under the influence of sodium amytal. Modifications in ego structure and personality reactions under the influence of the effects of drugs. Intravenous barbiturates: An aid in the diagnoses and treatment of conversion hysteria and malingering. Studies in psychopharmacologic psychotherapy: Effective psychotherapy during drug- induced states. Electroencephalogram and psychopathological manifestations in schizophrenia as influenced by drugs. The transference and non-specific drug effects in the use of the tranquilizer drugs, and their influence on affect. Clinical study of the mescaline psychosis with special reference to the mechanism of the genesis of schizophrenia and other psychotic states. The serial administration of the "amytal test" for brain disease; its diagnostic and prognostic value. Freed in Symposium: Discussion and critique on methodology of research in psychiatry. Effects of suggestion and conditioning on the action of chemical agents in human objects — the pharmacology of placebos. This chapter reviews the responses available for such interpretations, the validity of the method, and possible improvements and extensions of its use which may occur in the future. Such practices, long based on supernatural principles, have in fact been used since ancient times (35). As long ago as the eighteenth century Daniel Defoe proposed a test of this sort with a scientific rationale (31). Actual experiment on physiologic tests of deception seems to have begun with psychologists in Germany early in the century, with Benussi (2), an Italian with German training, offering the most extensive and promising results. A few years later Marston (29) and Larson (23), on the basis of certain experimental work, reported success with systolic blood pressure changes. Under a contract with the Office of Naval Research, which was -142- also supported by the other services, a group at Indiana University undertook a comparison of variables and combinations of variables that was reported in 1952 (17). Meanwhile the use of the "standard" methods has spread widely as an applied art with a certain body of tradition. An excellent survey of the current status of the field has recently been provided by Ferracuti (18) in Italian. The present survey will be organized into the following topics: (a) Evaluation of present practices. Evaluation of Present Practices We may consider "current practices" en masse and ask how effective these have been. This problem is considered by Inbau (20), apparently by comparing "lie detector" results with jury verdicts and confessions. The agreement between detection and the criterion for various sets of data is about 70 per cent, with 20 per cent of the cases discarded as ambiguous. This figure must be compared, of course, with some percentage of success to be expected by chance. If every case were treated independently, the percentage of success would be 50 per cent. It is, however, common practice to examine a group of suspected persons, of whom it is known that only one is guilty. If the operator then selects one from the group as guilty, his chances of being correct by sheer luck are less than 50 per cent. If, on the other hand, an operator knows, in a particular situation, that most of the examinees sent him are later judged guilty, his "percentage of success by chance" could be much higher. The jury decision is an imperfect criterion, of course, and may not be independent of the lie detector results since a prosecutor might be inclined to bring to trial more cases in which the lie detector results were clear. If the test has been used widely for screening, as it is reported to be, many suspects with negative finding on the instrument would not be brought to court. Most of these would be true negatives, and the percentage of success might actually be higher if they were included. The percentage obtained will depend clearly on the group from which it is derived. Further- -143- more, there is no telling exactly what procedures are used by various examining officers nor just what in the instrument records (or possibly aside from them) influences the judgment as to whether the lie detector test indicates guilt. For determining which methods and conditions give the most valid results, and whether improvement is actually possible, we must turn to experimental comparisons. This experimental knowledge of factors which are likely to influence the outcome could then be used in future attempts to evaluate uses in the practical situation.
Just make sure you don’t add so much ice that you drastically increase the volume of the mixture cheap acivir pills 200 mg fast delivery hiv infection mode of transmission. You may also want to rinse the solids left over in the filter with some ice-water to extract any remaining codeine buy cheap acivir pills 200 mg online hiv symptoms days after infection. For reasons not yet clear to those of us investigating these things “unofficially cost of acivir pills hiv infection world map,” butane (and perhaps other gas/solvents with similar ultra-low-boiling properties) selectively solvate the desirable fraction(s) of cannabis oils, pulling out only a beautiful amber “honey oil” and leaving the undesirable vegetative oils, waxes, chlorophyll, etc. Even unsmokable shade leaves produce a wonderfully clean and potent gold oil with this method. I have every reason to suspect that this would work splendidly to extract a super-strong and tasty oil from gross, unpalatable “schwag” commercial pot too, and of course, the better grade of herb you put it in, the better the resulting oil. This hole should be correctly sized to snugly receive the little outlet nozzle of your butane can. In the other end cap, drill a group of 5 or 6 small holes clustered in the center (like a pepper shaker). After putting a piece of paper towel or coffee filter inside it for filtration, put the end cap with several holes on one end of the pipe. A lab stand and clamp are ideal for the mounting, but a regular shop clamp or anything that can hold it sturdily is fine. Turn the butane gas can upside down and dispense the gas into the pipe via the single top hole. A spark at this moment would spell disaster since you have basically created an incendiary explosive device that is leaking. When you’ve exhausted the can into the pipe, back off to a nice distance and let it do its thing. When it gets to the bottom (~30 seconds after dispensing), it begins to drain into the receiving vessel. Over approximately five to eight minutes, the butane extract will finish draining from the pipe to the receiving vessel. Maintain caution with the pipe, however, since there is a lot of residual butane still evaporating from within the pipe (notice the stream of fumes coming from the top hole). When it slows down to a drop every few seconds, you can tap on the top hole with your finger and it will help push the last of the liquid butane out (or one can gently blow into the top hole to do the same thing). Being very low-boiling and volatile, the collected butane will likely begin boiling at ambient temperature. The receiving vessel will gradually frost up as the butane cools it down, slowing down its rate of evaporation, but you can speed this up again simply by holding it in your hands. Watch the butane start bubbling madly with the increase in temperature and marvel at its low boiling point. It takes about 20 minutes or so to allow the butane to evaporate, or quicker if you help it along. The best way to collect and store the oil is probably to let all of the butane evaporate off and then redissolve the oil in some anhydrous or high-% alcohol, and then pour this into a vial and let it sit out for a day or two to allow the alcohol to evaporate. Trying to transfer the oil into a small container while it is still solvated by the butane is too risky. I had filled a vial almost all the way to the top and was preparing to drop those last couple drops in, so that cleverly, I could let the last of the butane evaporate from the vial and the oil would all be neatly contained. But when the last drop hit the mother lode in the vial, it changed the temperature of the solution in the vial upward by a hair and it all “superboiled” out of the vial and onto my fingers, which of course startled me and caused me to drop the vial. The final product is a deep yellow-amber oil of the highest quality, incredibly pure and potent. It’s amazing how this method extracts only the good fraction and leaves the junk in the weed. Note also that this oil has a somewhat higher melt/vaporization point than traditional hash oils; the traditional dispensing method (dipping a needle or paper clip in, getting some goop on the end, and warming it with a flame to get it to drip off into your bowl) still works with this stuff, but it seems you have to be more careful with it because it doesn’t heat to liquid state as quickly or in the same manner, and it can more easily be allowed to burn up on your needle. Those who prefer a tincture-like preparation can of course thin the product a little with a bit of warm high-percentage alcohol like Everclear or 90-whatever-% isopropyl, then drop it onto buds or let a joint absorb some, then let the alcohol evaporate. I also observed that unlike hash oil derived from traditional methods, this product is not immediately soluble in room-temp alcohol; it needed to be warmed before it dissolved fully. Method 2: extraction of thc oil from marijuana If you ever had to think twice about lighting up a joint for fear of someone smelling it. If you were ever forced to blow the smoke out a window and pray you don’t reek of weed. The following steps require nothing more than simple, easy to find materials and a little time. Dump the powdered pot into the mason jar and pour in just enough grain alcohol so the weed particles float freely in the mixture. The alcohol should have turned a dark green color and when shaken should form colorful, oily bubbles on top. Place the sturdy cloth over the metal container and press the cloth down to form a funnel. Carefully pour the contents of the mason jar onto the cloth which is in the metal cup. Gather up the edges of the cloth and squeeze the remaining liquid out of the lump of weed into the metal cup. Step 1a You should now have a quantity of dark green liquid in your metal measuring cup. I recommend performing Step 1 a second time immediately after completing it the first time. You now have twice as much liquid in your metal cup upon repeating the first step. I highly suggest using the fan over the stove to remove the alcohol vapors during this entire step. If you do accidentally make it too thick, just add a small quantity of the grain alcohol to the metal cup and swirl it around till it’s thinner. It’s necessary to have some grain alcohol left in the resulting liquid so it’s easy to work with. To get a final product just put the metal container in a place where it won’t be disturbed. You don’t want to have to explain why a rag of wet marijuana is lying on the kitchen table do you? Materials you’ll need for smoking: A 5” X 5” piece of aluminum foil A Bic pen tube (take out all the stuff until it’s hollow) A stationary flame source (a butane torch works best, but you can use a candle, lighter, etc. Hold the Bic pen tube about 1” above the dark brown area and inhale through the tube. Once you’ve smoked what’s in the spoon, put a few more drops in and repeat as many times as you want. On occasion I’ve smoked so much at one time that all I could do was lay on the floor with a stupid look on my face. If you’re a smoker, you can put a few drops into a cigarette, let it dry, and feel free to catch a buzz without the smell. Acetone, methanol, ethanol should be avoided as they rip too much junk out of the plant matter resulting in crappy product. Create condesor out of 10’ ¼” copper pipe rolled into coil and immersed in cool water.
For instance discount acivir pills online amex hiv infection process in the body, when food that contains Vitamin K (such as green acivir pills 200 mg generic antiviral valacyclovir, leafy vegeta- bles) is eaten by a person taking warfarin buy 200 mg acivir pills otc hiv infection cd4, the drug’s anticoagula- tion properties are decreased and blood clots may form. Grapefruit can inhibit the metabolism of certain medications, resulting in toxic blood levels; examples include fexofenadine, albendazole, and atorvastatin. Because of all the interactions food can have with drug metabolism, being aware of drug interactions is essential. Adverse drug reactions A drug’s desired effect is called the expected therapeutic re- sponse. An adverse drug reaction (also called a side effect or ad- verse effect), on the other hand, is a harmful, undesirable re- sponse. Adverse drug reactions can range from mild ones that dis- appear when the drug is discontinued to debilitating diseases that become chronic. Adverse reactions can appear shortly after start- ing a new medication but may become less severe with time. Dosage dilemma Adverse drug reactions can be classified as dose-related or patient sensitivity–related. Most adverse drug reactions result from the known pharmacologic effects of a drug and are typically dose- related. Dose-related reactions include: • secondary effects • hypersusceptibility • overdose • iatrogenic effects. For example, morphine used for pain control can lead to two extreme sensitivity to undesirable secondary effects: constipation and respiratory de- a drug. Diphenhydramine used as an antihistamine produces se- dation as a secondary effect and is sometimes used as a sleep aid. Enhanced action A patient can be hypersusceptible to the pharmacologic actions of a drug. Such a patient experiences an excessive therapeutic re- sponse or secondary effects even when given the usual therapeu- tic dose. Hypersusceptibility typically results from altered pharmacoki- netics (absorption, metabolism, and excretion), which leads to higher-than-expected blood concentration levels. Increased recep- tor sensitivity also can increase the patient’s response to therapeu- tic or adverse effects. A toxic drug reaction can occur when an excessive dose is taken, either intentionally or by accident. The result is an exaggerated re- sponse to the drug that can lead to transient changes or more seri- ous reactions, such as respiratory depression, cardiovascular col- lapse, and even death. To avoid toxic reactions, chronically ill or elderly patients often receive lower drug doses. Iatrogenic issues Some adverse drug reactions, known as iatrogenic effects, can mimic pathologic disorders. Other examples of iatrogenic ef- fects include induced asthma with propranolol, induced nephritis with methicillin, and induced deafness with gentamicin. You’re so sensitive Patient sensitivity–related adverse reactions aren’t as common as dose-related reactions. Sensitivity-related reactions result from a patient’s unusual and extreme sensitivity to a drug. These adverse reactions arise from a unique tissue response rather than from an exaggerated pharmacologic action. Extreme patient sensitivity can occur as a drug allergy or an idiosyncratic response. Previous ex- posure to the drug or to one with similar chemical characteristics For an allergic sensitizes the patient’s immune system, and subsequent exposure reaction to occur, the patient must have causes an allergic reaction (hypersensitivity). The allergic reaction can vary in intensity from an immediate, life-threatening anaphylactic reaction with circulatory col- lapse and swelling of the larynx and bronchioles to a mild reaction with a rash and itching. Idiosyncratic response Some sensitivity-related adverse reactions don’t result from pharmacologic properties of a drug or from an allergy but are specific to the individual patient. While teaching a patient about drug therapy for diabetes, you review the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of insulin and oral antidiabetic agents. Pharmacokinetics discusses the movement of drugs through the body and involves absorption, distribution, metabo- lism, and excretion. Which type of drug therapy is used for a patient who has a chronic condition that can’t be cured? Maintenance therapy seeks to maintain a certain lev- el of health in patients who have chronic conditions. Pharmacodynamics studies the mechanisms of ac- tion of drugs and seeks to understand how drugs work in the body. Sometimes food enhances absorption—so grab a quick snack and come back for a review. Cholinergic drugs enhance the action of acetylcholine, stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system. Cholinergic drugs Cholinergic drugs promote the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. These drugs are also called parasympathomimetic drugs because they produce effects that imitate parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Mimickers and inhibitors There are two major classes of cholinergic drugs: Cholinergic agonists mimic the action of the neurotransmit- ter acetylcholine. Anticholinesterase drugs work by inhibiting the destruction of acetylcholine at the cholinergic receptor sites. How cholinergic drugs work Cholinergic drugs fall into one of two major classes: cholinergic agonists and anticholinesterase drugs. Cholinergic agonists Anticholinesterase drugs When a neuron in the parasympathetic nervous system is stim- After acetylcholine stimulates the cholinergic receptor, it’s de- ulated, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released. Anticholinester- choline crosses the synapse and interacts with receptors in an ase drugs inhibit acetylcholinesterase. Cholinergic agonists stimulate cholinergic re- line isn’t broken down and begins to accumulate, leading to ceptors, mimicking the action of acetylcholine. Pharmacokinetics (how drugs circulate) The action and metabolism of cholinergic agonists vary widely and depend on the affinity of the individual drug for muscarinic or nicotinic receptors. Metabolism and excretion All cholinergic agonists are metabolized by cholinesterases: • at the muscarinic and nicotinic receptor sites • in the plasma (the liquid portion of the blood) • in the liver. Pharmacodynamics (how drugs act) Cholinergic agonists work by mimicking the action of acetylcho- line on the neurons in certain organs of the body called target or- gans. Examples include the following: • Other cholinergic drugs, particularly anticholinesterase drugs (such as ambenonium, edrophonium, neostigmine, physostigmine, Adverse and pyridostigmine), boost the effects of cholinergic agonists and reactions to increase the risk of toxicity. Because they bind with • Quinidine also reduces the effectiveness of cholinergic agonists. As acetylcholine builds up, it continues to stimu- fects can include: late the cholinergic receptors. One day at a time: Recognizing a toxic response It’s difficult to predict adverse reactions to an- Enter edrophonium ticholinesterase drugs in a patient with myas- Deciding whether a patient is experiencing a thenia gravis because the therapeutic dose toxic drug response (too much drug) or a my- varies from day to day. Increased muscle asthenic crisis (extreme muscle weakness and weakness can result from: severe respiratory difficulties) can be difficult. When edrophonium is used, suction, oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and emer- gency drugs, such as atropine, must be readily available in case a cholinergic crisis occurs.