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Using the process model, we evaluate the lifetimes, while those who eventually pursue treatment do recent empirical literature spanning self-report, observational, so in their late 20s, which is typically more than a decade behavioral, and physiological methods across five specific after symptom onset . Emotion individual is out of proportion to the actual threat posed by the dysregulation. Jazaieri (*) distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other impor- Department of Psychology, Institute of Personality and Social tant areas of functioning (criterion G) . The most common framework for foundation for examining emotion and emotion regulation, understanding emotion regulation is the process model of introducing the process model of emotion regulation, which emotion regulation (see Fig. We then evaluate two psycho- situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive social interventions, which are designed to promote adaptive change, and response modulation. Throughout, we highlight studies that use to efforts made to influence emotion by either increasing or a variety of measures, including patient self-reports, decreasing the likelihood of encountering a given situation observational/behavioral data, and physiological indices. Situation Where possible, we also highlight areas for continued modification refers to efforts made to alter one’semotions research. Attentional deployment refers to efforts made to alter one’s emotions by directing one’s attention in a particular way in a Emotion and Emotion Regulation given situation. Cognitive change refers to efforts made to alter one’s emotions by modifying the subjective meaning of One of the most difficult questions facing the field of affective the situation. Lastly, response modulation refers to efforts science is defining exactly what an emotion is and what it is made to alter physiological, experiential, or behavioral re- not [10••]. Table 1 depicts a “maladaptive” and many, including moods and stress responses . There are sev- neither “adaptive” nor “maladaptive” but must be considered eral core features of emotions that are worth noting . First, within the context and goal(s) operative in a given situation emotions include situational antecedents or an internal or . Second, emotions require conscious tion both between and within families of emotion regulation or preconscious attention to the activating event. Relatedly, although much less is known is implicit or explicit subjective appraisal of whether an emo- about this empirically, presumably in most situations, individ- tion is useful (or not) in achieving the present goal(s). Fourth, uals are using multiple strategies in a single situation, either in emotions unfold over time and promote relevant action urges, sequence or simultaneously. Research suggests that being able physiological activation (central and peripheral), and, in some to apply a variety of emotion-regulatory strategies in a flexible cases, expressive behaviors. Second, emo- tion regulation can be a conscious, intentional, effortful pro- Situation Selection cess or it can be a process that occurs without conscious awareness. Third, emotion-regulatory processes must be eval- Situation selection refers to the decision to approach or avoid a uated within their specific contexts and in light of one’s specific context that may generate unwanted emotional re- regulatory goal(s) to determine whether they are “adaptive” sponses. Often, patients pre- Emotion-regulatory processes can be organized into groups dict that future situations and related emotional responses will based on when they have their primary impact on the emotion- be negative. Reprinted with permission from Guilford Press interpret social situations as being more threatening and arrive the feared emotion of anxiety.
F. Angar. University of New Haven.