Milk composition discount 240mg calan fast delivery heart attack blood pressure, milk yield and energy output at peak lactation: A comparative review buy genuine calan blood pressure entry chart. A Guide to medical/nutritional management of felids (including hand-rearing information) buy 120mg calan with visa hypertension 4 mg, in: Mellen, Prats, A. Atencin farmacolgica del neonato, en: Ponencias y comunicaciones Medicina y ciruga del Caro, T. Short term costs and correlates of play in sistema endocrino y de la reproduccin. Patterns of postnatal development in Ex situ del Lince Ibrico, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y skulls of lynxes, genus Lynx (Mammalia: carnivore). The composition of milks of pardinus) conservation Breeding Programme, in: Vargas, various: A review. Proceedings of the Annual (Lynx pardinus): evolucin y cambios de comportamiento Meeting of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, durante la lactancia, el juego y la caza. Entre estos cambios destacan las estereotipias, la inhibicin de la conducta maternal, el aumento de la conducta agresiva, y la reduccin del consumo de alimento y de la conducta exploratoria. Las estereotipias son conductas repetitivas que resultan de una enfermedad o de los intentos repetidos por adaptarse a un ambiente difcil. Las estereotipias de desplazamiento son las ms frecuentes en los felinos salvajes en cautividad y suelen aparecer cuando los animales se encuentran en situaciones que impiden o difcultan la expresin de su comportamiento normal, especialmente la conducta de alimentacin, locomotora o de 127 exploracin. Varios estudios sugieren que los animales que durante las fases tempranas del desarrollo se mantuvieron en ambientes pobres en estmulos tienen ms probabilidades de realizar estereotipias cuando son adultos. El estrs inhibe el comportamiento maternal y puede causar ocasionalmente canibalismo materno-flial. As mismo, el estrs puede interrumpir o prolongar el parto y causar hipoxia cerebral en las cras. El estrs causado por un ambiente inadecuado o nuevo causa frecuentemente anorexia, que en algunos casos puede comprometer la salud e incluso la vida del animal. Algunas circunstancias relacionadas con el manejo y las instalaciones de los felinos salvajes en cautividad tales como la introduccin de nuevos animales, la existencia de recursos por los que los animales pueden competir y la alteracin de la dinmica social tpica de cada especie pueden aumentar la frecuencia o intensidad de las interacciones agresivas. Las tcnicas de enriquecimiento ambiental y, de forma ocasional, la utilizacin de psicofrmacos y de feromonas constituyen las tcnicas principales para prevenir y corregir las alteraciones de comportamiento que aparecen en los felinos salvajes en cautividad. El objetivo principal del enriquecimiento ambiental es facilitar la expresin del comportamiento normal de la especie, especialmente la conducta exploratoria y la interaccin social. Las feromonas faciales y las feromonas apaciguadoras producidas por las hembras lactantes pueden ser especialmente tiles para prevenir o corregir los cambios de conducta causados por el estrs. Such changes generally involve stereotypic behaviour (or stereotypies), the inhibition of maternal behaviour, increased aggressive behaviour, and decreased food consumption and exploratory behaviour. Stereotypies are repetitive behaviours resulting from a disease or repeated attempts to adapt to a diffcult environment. Stereotypic pacing is the most frequent type of stereotyped behavior in wild felids in captivity. It usually appears when the animals are in a situation that prevents or hinders them from expressing their normal behaviour, particularly feeding, moving about, or exploring. A number of studies suggest that when animals are held in environments with few stimuli at an early stage of their development, they are more likely to perform stereotypies as adults. Stress inhibits maternal behaviour and may sometimes cause maternal cannibalism, or interrupt or delay delivery and cause brain hypoxia in the young. Stress caused by an inadequate or new environment often causes anorexia, which may in some cases compromise the animals health or even its life. Some circumstances related to the housing and husbandry of wild felids in captivity, e. Environmental enrichment techniques, and occasionally the use of psychotropic drugs and pheromones, are the main techniques to prevent and correct behaviour problems in captive wild felids. The main objective of environmental enrichment is to facilitate the expression of the normal behaviour of the species, especially exploratory behaviour and social interaction. Facial pheromones and appeasing pheromones produced by lactating females can be particularly useful to prevent or correct behavioural abnormalities caused by stress. More recently, Rushen and Mason (2006) have described them as repetitive behaviours resulting from illness or repeated attempts at adapting to a diffcult environment. Stereotypic behaviour has seldom been described in animals in the wild 129 (carlstead, 1996). However, it is seen relatively frequently in wild animals in captivity, such as farm, companion and laboratory animals. Only stereotypies which occur in response to environmental conditions will be considered in this article. T The stereotypy most frequently exhibited by wild carnivores in captivity is known as pacing. It involves the animal making repetitive movements along an unchanging path, often incorporating a fixed sequence of movements in a specific place. This stereotypy makes up 97% of those described in captive carnivores (clubb and Mason, 2003). The causes of environmental stereotypies have been, and continue to be, the subject of many investigations, and a detailed revision of the neurophysiological mechanisms responsible for such behaviours is beyond the objectives of this article. Briefy, however, it appears that environmental stereotypies tend to be exhibited in situations where expression of normal behaviour is obstructed or made diffcult. In particular, they can appear when the environment prevents the expression of feeding, locomotory or exploratory behaviours. Likewise, some stereotypies seem to derive from an animals attempts to escape the environment in which it is confned; in which case, the behaviour would be a consequence of the aversion caused by the environment (Rushen et al. Finally, stereotypies can also be triggered by the general activation of the central nervous system as a response to unspecifc stimuli (Rushen et al. It is often stated that stereotypies are a consequence of the animal being confned to a very limited space, and can be reduced or even eliminated by simply increasing the space available to the animal. The tendency to perform stereotypies varies considerably between species, and between individuals of the same species. The differences between species can be at least partly related to some aspects of their natural history. Interestingly, neonatal mortality in captivity also tends to be greater in these species than in those which use smaller areas. This would indicate differences between species in terms of the ease in which they are able to adapt to their captive conditions. The differences between individuals within a species can have genetic and environmental origins. Thus, during early stages of development, a complex environment that is rich in stimuli may help prevent the development of stereotypies in later stages, due to greater behavioural flexibility and decreased sensitivity to stressful situations. This could explain the differences, described in some species, between individuals born in captivity and individuals captured in the wild in terms of their tendency to carry out stereotypical behaviours (Jones and Pillay, 2006).
Old Age Pensions in Britain calan 240 mg without prescription heart attack band, coupled with mandatory Even though chronological age or distinguishing retirement ages calan 120mg amex arteria coronaria c x. Just as children can be seen changes have raised the lower limit of retirement age as progressing through recognizable stages or streams buy calan without a prescription hypertension genetic, (eligibility for full Social Security pension benefits) from so can adults. There are, not surprisingly, different 65 to 67, because of concerns regarding the solvency of models of child development rooted in various theories the Social Security system. Overall, we expect that age and experience will Ageism in its limited meaning (regarding discrimi- yield maturity; we expect a 3-year-old to handle adver- nation against the elderly) tends to assume that the sity differently than a 30-year-old. But a 16-year-old elderly are no longer able to contribute to society in may be wise and a 60-year-old foolish; a 30-year-old a meaningful way, and drain the broader societys well settled into a career or still unfocused. Stages of resources because of a continuous decline in health and development may overlap or be revisited. We may are in fact in nursing homes, and that these individuals achieve maturity in one role but find it elusive in tend to be the very oldest. Some research and anecdotes another, or devote energies to one sphere of life (work indicate that being segregated with other aged people vs. Chronological age does not may interrupt career or postpone family for a period of solely define function, though health and social policy time, then reassess and refocus, no matter what our might suggest otherwise. In the late 20th century, individuals While it is understood that discrimination against as unlike as Julia Child and Jimmy and Roslyn Carter the elderly is prohibited, it is less well known that the publicly embarked on new directions in their lifework Age Discrimination Act of 1975, which affects programs at a time that many would be simply retired. Panic-like symptoms are fewer in number than is required for a full-fledged panic attack, but can also include other incapacitating symptoms (e. The former occur unpredictably whereas the latter can be in response to some stimulus, but at other times attacks do Suggested Reading not occur with that stimulus at all (e. The life or the implications of the attack, or a marked change cycle completedextended version. Although an epidemiologic study reported a 68% rate of agoraphobia without panic attacks or disorder, it Agoraphobia Agoraphobia is a psychiatric is rarely seen in clinical settings. Another study found illness in which individuals are anxious about being in that agoraphobia without panic occurred in 7. Others report to help in case a panic attack or panic-like symptoms that the occurrence of agoraphobia without panic disor- occur. Due to these apprehensions, individuals with ago- der is rare as most individuals (95%) have past or present raphobia begin to avoid situations, or experience intense panic disorder. Differences in the results obtained are anxiety or fear having a panic attack or panic-like symp- blamed on flawed study methodology. The exact cause is unknown; however, it avoid being alone either at home or otherwise. Other is thought to be a combination of biology, gender, and typical situations that are avoided are places that are dif- environment. Panic disorder with agoraphobia is three ficult to leave abruptly like public transportation, tunnels, times as likely to occur in women than men. It is must first be elucidated since it is a key component in estimated that clinical samples (individuals being treated diagnosis. Panic attacks are episodes of intense anxiety for psychiatric disorders) have even higher rates of ago- in which at least four of the following thirteen symp- raphobia. Most individuals with 81 Agricultural Work limited symptom attacks have experienced full-fledged panic attacks at some point. Panic attacks, as opposed Agricultural Work Approximately 22,200 to limited symptom attacks, are associated with greater women in the United States are employed in agriculture impairment. In some cases a decrease in agoraphobia as farm owners, managers, workers, and in other follows a decrease in panic symptoms. Although women employed in phobia without a history of panic seem to have a more agriculture represent a small portion of the total agri- difficult course and outcome. Individuals who experi- cultural workforceless than 15%this number under- ence more severe agoraphobia tend to experience other estimates the contribution of women to agricultural anxiety disorders as well. Occupational diseases in toms with antipanic medications such as tricyclics, ben- women working on farms will go undiagnosed if a physi- zodiazepines, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and cian assumes she does not work or if a physician is unfa- monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Exposure-based therapies seem nitrogen dioxide, anhydrous ammonia, pesticides, endo- to be most effective for agoraphobic avoidance. In addition, Phobia, Posttraumatic stress disorder since the work changes seasonally and is often done under time pressure, women are likely to be at a high Suggested Reading risk of injury comparable to new workers in other occu- pational settings. Archives of General Women who have been exposed to agricultural Psychiatry, 47, 819824. Anxiety disorders in adults: An evidence-based approach to psychological treatment. New York: differences may contribute to differing susceptibility to Oxford University Press. The relationship Susceptibility may be increased or it may be reduced of agoraphobia and panic in a community sample of adolescents due to gender. The absence of services may have a detrimental effect on the health and well-being of farm women. However, they are likely to experience greater Syndrome ergonomic problems than their male counterparts. In addition, migrant women who work during their preg- nancy are likely to experience problems due to bend- ing and lifting. Exposure to pesticides in the fields has been a persistent problem for all migrant workers and Alcohol Use Although patterns of drinking and should also be of concern for the children exposed in behavior when inebriated vary cross-culturally, alcohol utero. Women who migrate from other countries may consumption affects men and women differently in also experience high levels of exposure to farm chemi- all cultures for biological as well as social reasons. Although the capacity to drink alcohol without unique problems for addressing the medical problems showing strong effects of inebriation varies individually of migrant women. In addition, from consideration of agricultural safety and health negative effects of chronic overconsumption of alcohol programs. However, women Women have been found to suffer psychological harm who work infrequently with equipment may need to be from alcohol addiction more strongly than men, and retrained when they have been away from it for a addiction among women in most societies is so heavily while. Women need to be aware that they are exposed stigmatized that female problem drinkers are at higher to dusts and chemicals that should be mentioned to risk than men for depression, low self-esteem, and suici- their physicians when they are having health problems. However, because most research on prob- lem drinking has focused on men, health providers know less about female addiction and how best to treat it. Even a single instance of consuming 57 drinks in the first trimester can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome, which causes characteristic facial deformi- Suggested Reading ties, developmental disabilities, and seizure disorders. Agricultural health and safety: effects of alcohol consumption in the second and Workplace, environment and sustainability. One-eyed science: Occupational health and evidence suggests a link between moderate drinking women workers. Rates of fetal damage may vary by ethnic use also increases risk of conjugal violence.
The higher levels of albumin previously reported in female Iberian lynx (Garca et al calan 80 mg low price blood pressure chart by who. The increase in levels of creatinine and glucose in captive lynx could be related to diet purchase calan from india blood pressure eating. The data is representative of the total population as it has been obtained from more than half of the existing lynx population purchase calan hypertension 2 torrent, including animals of different ages, sexes, habitat conditions and metapopulations. This work has been possible thanks to the Environment Ministry of the Andalusian Government, which has commissioned the study and provided samples. Diseases of the Iberian serum biochemical reference intervals for Florida panthers. Interdisciplinary Methods in the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) conservation Breeding Programme, in: Vargas, Meyer, D. Serologic survey and serum biochemical reference ranges of the free-ranging mountain lion (Felis concolor) in california. Histopathological and immunohistochemical fndings in lymphoid tissues of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Patterns and causes of non- natural mortality in the Iberian lynx during a 40 year period of range contraction. Los estudios iniciales revelaron la presencia de deplecin linfoide, glomerulonefritis y hialinosis folicular esplnica entre otros hallazgos menos frecuentes como tuberculosis y carcinomas de clulas escamosas. Muestras de tejidos fjados en formol de 40 linces ibricos fueron procesadas, teidas con hematoxilina y eosina y evaluadas. Adems, se emplearon tinciones especiales, inmunohistoqumica y microscopa electrnica en los tejidos renales y linfoides de casos seleccionados. El estado inmune fue evaluado mediante tcnicas de linfoproliferacin y fenotipado de clulas mononucleares sanguneas, utilizando muestras de sangre de 23 linces ibricos. Para evaluar la funcin renal fueron recogidas muestras de sangre (n=23) y orina (n=17) de forma prospectiva. En la mayora de los animales de este estudio se observ una deplecin variable de clulas T y B en los tejidos linfoides perifricos. Por su parte, los ensayos de linfoproliferacin y citometra de fujo mostraron una respuesta reducida y reduccin en el nmero de las poblaciones linfocitarias, respectivamente, en la mayora de los animales. Tambin se observaron depsitos de hialina en muchos de los folculos esplnicos evaluados. En todos los animales se hall glomerulonefritis membranosa en diferentes grados de severidad. En 16 de los 23 animales vivos analizados se hallaron indicios de enfermedad renal crnica. La disfuncin renal y las alteraciones inmunitarias pueden tener repercusiones en la conservacin de las poblaciones de lince ibrico supervivientes y deberan tenerse en consideracin. Initial studies revealed lymphoid depletion, glomerulonephritis and splenic follicular hyalinosis among other less frequent fndings such as tuberculosis and squamous cell carcinomas. Formalin fxed tissue samples of all organ systems from 40 Iberian lynxes were routinely processed, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and evaluated. Additionally, special stains, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy were applied on renal and lymphoid tissues of selected cases. The immunity status was evaluated by means of lymphoproliferative stimulation and phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cell types using whole blood samples from 23 Iberian lynxes. Blood (n=23) and urine (n=17) samples were prospectively collected for evaluation of renal function. Various degrees of both B and T cells depletion in peripheral lymphoid tissues were noted in the majority of animals. Lymphoproliferative assays and fow cytometry also revealed diminished responses and decreased numbers of lymphocytes respectively in the majority of animals. Sixteen of the 23 live animals evaluated also contained some signs of chronic renal disease. Renal impairment and immunity alterations may impact conservation management of the surviving populations and should be considered. One of the ways to carry out this premise with the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) has been by means of post-mortem gross and histologic examination in search of lesions and diseases with possible repercussion in the survival of this critically endangered species. For this purpose, a research study involving exhaustive post-mortem and histologic evaluation of Iberian lynxes deceased between the years 1998-2006 was conducted. Initial studies revealed alarming indices of lymphoid depletion, glomerulonephritis and splenic follicular hyalinosis among other somewhat frequent fndings such as tuberculosis and A squamous cell carcinomas, which derived into a more in depth study of the morphology and pathogenesis of these lesions. For the purpose of this chapter, those studies that derived from initial fndings in necropsy and histopathology will be described separately from the clinical studies that were prospectively conducted on the living population as a result of the initial histological fndings. Samples were routinely processed and stained with hematoxilin-eosin (h-e) for examination. For more profound studies on the immunity status, glomerulonephritis and splenic hyalinosis previously mentioned, additional stains, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy were applied on pertinent tissues from the above cases as follows. Glomerular lesions were characterized and scored according to severity (mild, moderate and severe). Electron microscopy and immunogoldlabelling (using antibodies against IgA, IgG and IgM) of selected formalin and glutaraldehyde fxed samples were conducted in a similar manner to the splenic samples (Jimnez et al. Lymphoproliferative responses were assessed by stimulation with mitogen concavalin A (conA). For these experiments, serum and whole blood samples from 23 (11:12) Iberian lynxes, eight free-ranging and 15 captive, from the Doana and Sierra Morena populations were prospectively collected. Blood (n=23) and urine (n=17) samples were prospectively collected from live animals in both populations and used for the same purpose. Re s u l t s hI s t o l o g I c a l e v a l u a t I o n o f f o R m a l I n f I x e d Ib e R I a n l y n x n e c R o P s y s a m P l e s The most important fndings noted in the necropsied animals were the lymphoid depletion, splenic hyalinosis and glomerulonephritis. Because of the importance and the research that resulted from these fndings, these lesions will be addressed separately and further along in this chapter. Ba zo; l i n c e iBrico, d e P s i t o d e hialina F o l i c u l a r e n g l o B a n d o c a P i l a r e s y r o d e a n d o la t n i c a adventicia centroarteriolar. In later necropsy samples, disruption of basement membranes was observed indicating progression from an in situ to a squamous cell carcinoma. In another animal, the neoplasm also contained features of an in situ squamous cell carcinoma with regional disruption of basement membranes, again suggesting progression from an in situ to a squamous cell carcinoma. These fndings were portrayed in a publication including animals from the years 1998 and 2003 (Pea et al. Similar fndings with variable degrees of severity were noted in Iberian lynxes necropsied within the following years included in this survey. This dense hyaline material was noted in approximately 76% of the spleens evaluated for this study.
On the other hand order cheapest calan blood pressure chart stress, exogenous antioxi dants can be from animal and plant sources; however buy calan 80 mg with amex prehypertension blood pressure, those of plant origin are of great in terest because they can contain major antioxidant activity  buy calan visa ulterior motive quotes. Different reports show that persons with a high intake of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables have an important risk re duction of developing cancer, mainly due to their antioxidant content . Among the vege table antioxidants are vitamins E and C, and -carotene, which are associated with diminished cardiovascular disease and a decreased risk of any cancer . Molecular Studies of Natural Antioxidants Different types of natural antioxidants are present in fruit and vegetables; they have syner gistic interactions that are important due to their activity and regenerative potential. For ex ample, ascorbate can regenerate into -tocopherol , and the ascorbate radical is regenerated into other antioxidants via the thiol redox cycle. Taken together, all of these in teractions are known as the antioxidant network. Additionally, vitamin E possesses antiprolifera tive properties that interfere in signal transduction and in inducing cell cycle arrest. However, when the former under goes deregulation, it acts as a breast tumor promoter, enhancing the proliferation of chemi cally induced mammary tumors . There are other sources of oxidant molecules, such as pollution, the environ ment, and certain foods. Proteins are responsible for different cell processes (enzymatic, hormonal, structural sup port). The brain is the organ with the highest oxygen consumption; it has high levels of fatty acids, iron, and low antioxidant defenses. Similar processes occur during aging, resulting in the genetic response of increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes and chaperone proteins . Polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly compounds of the membranes) are susceptible to peroxi dation, which affects the integrity of the membranes of organelles of the cell membrane and the respiratory chain, in turn affecting cell viability. Cancer Cancer is unnatural cell growth, in which cells can lose their natural function and spread throughout the blood in the entire body. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed can cer in industrialized countries and has the highest death toll . This inactivation can increase the expression of proto-oncogenes  which can produce major damage. Oxidative damage or genetic defects that result in some defective enzymes are incapable of repairing the mutations increase the incidence of age-de pendent cancer . It has been proposed that lower anti oxidant activity increases the risk of developing cancer; thus, ingestion of antioxidants can prevent cancerogenesis. Various reducing substances in the human body control the status of oxidation-reduction (redox), and a continuing imbalance in favor of oxidation causes several problems when it exceeds the capacity of such a control . Otto Warburg was the first scientist to implicate oxygen in cancer  as far back as the 1920s. However, the underlying mechanism by which oxygen might contribute to the carci nogenic process was undetermined for many years. The discovery of superoxide dismutase in 1968 by  led to an explosion of research on the role of reactive oxygen in the patholo gies of biological organisms. Reactive oxygen has been specifically connected with not only cancer, but also many other human diseases [5, 57]. They possess a huge range of potential actions on cells, and one could easily envisage them as anti-cancer (e. Active oxygen may be involved in carcinogenesis through two possible mechanisms: induc tion of gene mutations that result from cell injury , and the effects on signal transduction and transcription factors. Which mechanism it follows depends on factors such as the type of active oxygen species involved and the intensity of stress . Because free radicals are usually generated near membranes (cytoplasmic membrane, mitochondria, or endoplasmic reticulum), lipid peroxidation is the first reaction to occur. Exposure to free radicals from a variety of sources has led organisms to develop a series of defense mechanisms that involve the following: 1. Under normal con ditions, there is a balance between both the activities and the intracellular levels of these anti oxidants: this equilibrium is essential for the survival of organisms and their health 7. These systems include some antioxidants produced in the body (endogenous) and oth ers obtained from the diet (exogenous) . The various defenses are complementary to each other because they act against different species in different cellular compartments. In addition to these, antioxidants in plants might account for at least part of the health benefits associated with vegetable and fruit consumption . The plants, vegetables, and spices used in folk and traditional medicine have gained wide acceptance as one of the main sources of prophylactic and chemopreventive drug discovery and development [85, 29]. At present, many patients with cancer combine some forms of complementary and alternative therapy with their conventional therapies [4, 58]. A recent survey of patients at a comprehensive cancer center placed the use of vitamin and minerals at 62. These types of patients employ complementary and alternative therapies for a variety of rea sons [31, 14]: to improve quality of life (77%); to improve immune function (71%); to prolong life (62%), or to relieve symptoms (44%) related with their disease . Antioxidant phenolic agents have been implicated in the mechanisms of chemo prevention, which refers to the use of chemical substances of natural or of synthetic origin to reverse, retard, or delay the multistage carcinogenic process . It has been shown that dietary phytochemicals can interfere with each stage of the devel opment of carcinogenesis [130, 93]. Indeed, studies have shown that various polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables are particularly effective in protecting against several types of cancer development [84, 75, 59]. Dietary polyphe nols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as remov al of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as of cell cycle arrest. Some of these ef fects may be related, at least partly, with their antioxidant activities . They may ex ert protective effects against cancer development, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract, where they will be at their highest concentration. In fact, many studies have shown that various polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables are particularly effective in protecting against colon cancer development [84, 75]. For example, they may interact with reactive intermediates  and acti vated carcinogens and mutagens , they may modulate the activity of the key proteins in volved in controlling cell cycle progression , and they may influence the expression of many cancer-associated genes . Perhaps most notably, the anticancer properties of green tea flavanols have been reported in animal models and in human cell lines ( Takada et al. In vivo studies have demonstrated that many natural compounds found in plants and fruits have the capability to inhibit many types of human and animal cancer. In addition, it was demonstrated that these vita mins can inhibit progression and pathogenesis in colorectal cancer . In animal models, vitamins showed promise for chemopreventive agents against several types of gastrointesti nal cancer . Human studies demonstrated that consumption of total antioxidants in the diet (fruits and vegetables) is inversely associated with the risk of distal gastric cancer . The properties of the teas polyphe nols make them effective chemopreventive agents against the initiation, promotion, and pro gression stages of multistage carcinogenesis . It was demonstrated that beta-ionone, a precursor of carotenoids, ameliorated lung carcinogenesis; the latter is attributed to the antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of beta-ionone through free radical scavenging properties .